Research Techniques


Quantitative market research is numerically oriented, requires significant attention to the measurement of market phenomena and often involves statistical analysis.

1.Face-to-Face Interviewing:

         Either in the form of

                      – Street and Mall- Intercepts

                      – Door-to-Door Interviews

2.Central Location Tests (logo testing, concept use tests):

A Central Location Test (CLT) is one in which the research is conducted in a location such as a room in a shopping mall. Here, consumers would be recruited to participate in a research product at the mall and the research would be conducted and completed at that time

3.Mystery Shopping:

Our team of trained nationwide mystery shoppers visit  retail stores, restaurants, bank branches or any such location with the objective of measuring the quality of customer experience.

Computer Assisted Telephonic Interviewing (CATI):

With our state of the art call centre IRF has experience and  capacity of conducting high quality computer assisted  telephonic interviews through its  specialized CATI system.

5. Online surveys:

RF has the capacity to conduct nationwide online surveys including development of online survey forms to data collection and reporting

6. Postal and Self-Completion Market Research:

IRF also has history of conducting postal and self completion based market researches throughout Pakistan.

7. Omnibus Market Research Surveys:

IRF also has capacity of conducting omnibus surveys where data on a wide variety of subjects is collected during the same interview. IRF generally uses a stratified sample conducted either by mail, telephone, or Internet.


Qualitative market research provides an understanding of how or why things are as they are.

  1.   Focus Group Discussion (FGD)

These are usually made up of 6 to 8 targeted respondents, a research moderator whose role is to ask the required questions, draw out answers, and encourage discussion, and an observation area usually behind one way mirrors, and      video and/or audio taping facilities.  

 2.  Mini FGDs mini group discussion (4-5 respondents)

 3.  Market Research Paired Depths

The same as a depth interview but there are two respondents. Particularly useful when ideas need to be ‘bounced off’ one another.

 4.  Triads

Conducted with three respondents

 5.  In-depth interviews (IDI)

‘One on one’ basis. a trained executive interviewer and one  respondent. a single respondent is interviewed based on  various themes and topics (can be conducted either face to  face or via the phone).

6.  Workshops:

To elicit new ideas and to evaluate ideas

 7. Ethnographic Study

Ethnography is more usually described as participant observation, and this is where the researcher becomes a  working member of the group or situation to be observed.The aim is to understand the situation from the inside: from the viewpoints of the people in the situation.

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